Energy End Use Database

Publication date: March 2023

About the database

The Energy End Use Database (EEUD) gives the latest data on energy use in New Zealand homes and businesses, use of fossil fuel and low-carbon energy, and how the transition to low-carbon energy is tracking.

The ‘end use’ values expressed in the EEUD represent how delivered energy is split between its uses in given sectors. The delivered energy end use values are different to the ‘actual’ end use energy volumes when efficiencies and losses are accounted for.

EECA has updated the EEUD with 2021 figures, providing five years of information in a new online open data visualisation tool and a downloadable spreadsheet of the entire dataset.

The dataset was developed by EECA and uses annual energy demand data from MBIE. Delivered energy estimates are provided for fuel types, sectors, end uses and technologies, using published data covering 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020 and 2021 calendar years.

The updated dataset is now available as an online data visualisation application showcasing the results with a user-friendly interactive interface. The data is also available as a downloadable spreadsheet of the entire dataset. 

Key insights and methodology [PDF, 1.7 MB]

Key insights

Fossil fuel use for energy continues to dominate key industrial sectors (seen in the graph below), and in New Zealand’s overall energy profile. Renewables, mainly in the form of wood and geothermal, are used significantly in the wood, pulp and paper sectors, but still represent a small portion of the overall mix.

At a national level, energy consumption dipped in 2020, (related to the 2020 Covid-19 lockdown). This dip is reflected in most business sectors and can be seen in the top five stationary (non-transport) energy consumption sectors. The dip continued in some sectors, however, energy use in the residential sector increased slightly.


Top 5 business sectors and the residential sector – Stationary energy consumption

Top 5 Business Sectors and the Residential Sector – Stationary Energy Consumption.

Sector insights

Dairy product manufacturing accounts for 9% of all stationary energy use.

The dairy product manufacturing sector is one of the largest energy using sectors in New Zealand, accounting for around 9% of all stationary energy use in 2021. Total consumption dipped across 2020 and 2021, likely due to the general impact of Covid on businesses. Coal and natural gas dominate the sectors’ fuel profile accounting for 83% of total stationary energy in 2021. Process heat made up 60% of total stationary energy used.

Dairy product manufacturing – Stationary energy consumption

Dairy product manufacturing – Stationary energy consumption.

Petrochemical product manufacturing

The petrochemical product manufacturing sector is another large energy using sector in New Zealand, accounting for around 8% of all stationary energy used in 2021. In 2018 energy consumption dipped due to outages which constrained production in the second half of the year.  Across 2020 and 2021 consumption dipped again likely due to a mix of factors; the April 2020 Covid lockdown period, global price reductions and gas supply reductions, and Methanex’s Waitara Valley plant closure. Natural gas dominates the sector’s fuel profile, accounting for 91% of total stationary energy in 2021.  High temperature process heat made up 87% of total stationary energy used.

Petrochemical product manufacturing

Petrochemical Product Manufacturing – Stationary Energy Consumption.

The Pulp and Paper sector is using more renewable energy 

The Pulp and Paper sector accounts for about 4% of stationary energy use (13.5 PJ in 2021) and is a large user of renewable energy. The renewable energy used is mainly biomass and some geothermal steam.  The data indicates that the proportion of renewable energy use has increased of 2020 and 2021.  This is likely due to fuel switching efforts across sites in the industry.  In particular, Oji Fibre Solutions, the biggest player in the sector, has reported steady increases in its geothermal consumption which has likely displaced fossil fuel consumption.    

Pulp and Paper


About the data

The EEUD was initially created by EECA in 2007.  EECA revised and improved the quality of the database in 2018.  An improved dataset was released publicly in 2020 and was available as open data.

Open data website(external link)

In November 2021 the updated dataset was released as an online data visualisation application showcasing the results with a user-friendly interactive interface.  The data is also available as a downloadable spreadsheet of the entire dataset.  The release in November 2021 includes an interactive data visualisation app the following sectors: Residential, Industrial, Commercial, Agriculture Forestry and Fishing.  

Data is always released for the previous year soon after the MBIE Energy Balances are released.

Energy use estimates are derived using a ‘top down’ approach based on MBIE’s annual high-level sector/fuel energy demand data and proportioned into further disaggregated sectors, end use applications and technology values using ‘bottom up’ data held by EECA.

In April 2022, the transport data methodology was updated and now expresses an enhanced breakdown of technologies and transport modes. This update was based upon Waka Kotahi, Ministry of Transport and EECA data. The updated data provides insights into battery electric vehicles, passenger and freight rail, and heavy trucks.

For more information about the EEUD, please email